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A main principle in the Buddhist religion is Karma – they believe that between lives you meet Lord Yama, who holds up a mirror in which you see all of your past deeds which are then measured on a balance to determine where you go in your next life. You are tasked with saving lives, but one cannot purposely sacrifice a life to save other lives. I then consider what some important virtue ethicists have said about In society these days, Utilitarianism is the name of the game. Because Kantian ethics is about treating people not as means but as ends, this philosophy can influence nearly every aspect of business, from research and development to production, manufacturing, marketing, and consumption. The aim is not ‘‘reformation’’ of … Abortion and Virtue Ethics By Mathew Lu Introduction My goal here is to consider what contemporary virtue ethics can say about the problem of abortion. Abortion is the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo before viability. Cassandra Harper November 12, 2017 A Utilitarian and Kantian Approach to the Abortion Debate Abortion. If killing fetuses is permissible because they are notfull-fledged members of the moral community, then, by the same standard,killing newborns would be permissible as well.Moreover, killing any non-human animal would also be permissible.But this is not the case. /R�h�:u��4�s@8J%��Ze@\bkyq!�dB��w\Ѫ�=!�9��a�t��vM�f�\���m�"hS�t+�G�U�H^���zD���-���+�T{.��r��gY���{�d<9v�bu&2�~��3��?�Ƽ洮A@c���i�lڏ͠˃���3pb6�|Y��H����eTj��vW/���2)��#�NX����U8�x��=C�NQ`�H����;A�ӡDN=DP�� � ꥋ�l.��N�mp/��9�gO�wW� з��|�fM�9I��Ѻ��8.�������MG�ڊ�����Z@T`{P�[�7� �����w4\��e�e�����%sOV]R�/�ۚ-��EKSP���gݥI*����_���\&�I���8��p�B����\��A���Z�ml�.��tI��P �"%˥L��yie�[p�� Deontological ethics has its roots in the philosophy of both Plato and Aristotle. What can contemporary virtue ethics say about the problem of abortion? Some ethicists don't like the argument that Get Your Custom Essay on. Very important consequences arising from the two general theoretical horizons concerns two different perspectives … pge��4M��vkm:�h#Ӯ'�K���C3O���tYϢ��6��f����붾^�M���BFZ���Q�����oo~����R@s�� iY���7�*ـo�y�{�4D���4n]�Qg����*��w} �#� .W��8�'+6��g��X)mc�ٿp��C��br�� �/�4�=�b1b�3�!��Ϝo ���;$��A.���#��M��9���~o8bë��o��Xw8��#��I��x�nߐ�c��CzǗ����e�C�� ���-:�0Q ��T�_��i Moreover, the moral debate about abortion can also be understood in terms of the ethical theories which are used to support or condemn it. The most useful ethical theory concerning abortion is in my opinion, Buddhism. I begin by outlining virtue ethics in comparison to the two other dominant approaches in normative ethics. <> 4 0 obj This is why I have a deontology view on abortion. The Ten Commandments is an example, as is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Moral Theory of Deontology Explained With Varied Examples - … Disability in the foetus. endobj Unlike Buddhism and Kant, Utilitarianism is a relativist theory and states that nothing is intrinsically right or wrong. Abortion … In this paper I will present the issue of abortion, explain the three classical theories of utilitarianism, deontology and virtue ethics on how to solve the issue and contrast this response with the perspective brought to the issue of abortion by ethical egoism. Buddhists have come to the conclusion that life begins at conception, as they teach that one incarnates in the mother at the moment of conception, meaning that destroying an embryo is equal to murder. This is not to say, however, that Hinduism is blindly accepting of all kinds of abortion Euthanasia gives the patient a choice. One of these precepts is ‘I undertake the training principle of refraining from harming living beings’, rendering abortion immoral and linking to the Buddhist idea that mental attitude is very important. stream endobj However, both of these men believed that happiness, wisdom and virtue were possible to achieve only because an unchanging set of rules did exist. When we take this and apply it to abortion, we see that abortion is completely ethical and can provide for the greatest amounts of good for the greatest amounts of people. TWEET. Within ethics, there are many arguments as to whether abortion should be permitted in society as many regard it as an act of murder and others simply see it as a decision that should be given to the mother only. However, judging abortion on the basis on welfare can be problematic, because we are often unable to establish the long-term consequences of the action, therefore long term damage cannot be assessed. ��!�NJ�yܑ�Y�DN�djW�9�i�T�ҦU�22m�x��+�F�O���ʓR�;���DXe!�á;>[�5'X����e��w6�Kk�:^�u{0 S�恥��-UB ��D|�V��FV�I�� Kant’s theory is not as compelling as that of the Buddhists as despite it being along similar lines, his Priniciple of Universalisability seems much more trivial than the idea of the Tathagatha-Garba, as it is unrealistic and though it is a relatively strong argument, to me the Buddhist approach is much more persuasive as it deals with a very real possibility. Deontology: Duty-Based Ethics. SHARE. Most deontologists say there are two different kinds of ethical duties, perfect duties and imperfect duties. Abortion is defined as the deliberate termination of a human pregnancy through a medical procedure which results in the death of a fetus. The word Deontology or deontological ethics also comes from Greek, more precisely from the word deontos which means 'duty'. 2. Any system involving a clear set of rules is a form of deontology, which is why some people call it a “rule-based ethic”. In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek: δέον, 'obligation, duty' + λόγος, 'study') is the normative ethical theory that the morality of an action should be based on whether that action itself is right or wrong under a series of rules, rather than based on the consequences of the action. Contrary to Utilitarianism, Buddhism has a very clear view on when life begins: conception. Their belief in the Tathagatha-Garba means that to them there is no situation in which abortion would be justifiable, as no matter the circumstance, the Tathagatha-Garba is always being destroyed which is an evil act. This content was COPIED from BrainMass.com - View the original, and get the already-completed solution here! Like Kant, Buddhists believe that life is sacred and have a very positive view of human beings. This is why I have a deontology view on abortion. 3 0 obj Kant would say to the woman who wants to have an abortion: “Can you will that every other woman would have an abortion when she is pregnant?” If the woman says “yes,” then abortion is moral. Deontology can also be either religious or secular: Religious: Secular: Universalist: God(s) has/have determined a set of rules for humanity. Pros And Cons Of Utilitarian Approach To Abortion 1913 Words | 8 Pages. Like his predecessors, Kant insisted that actions resulting from desires cannot be free. <> 14 COMMENTS. Buddhism would say that the mother does not have the right to destroy the Tathagartha-Garba as it is a completely different entity, it is simply living inside her body for the time being, not an actual part of the mother’s body over which she has control. Kant’s philosophy is generally placed under the category of deontological ethics. Warren’s Reply: “The deliberatekilling of viable newborns is virtually never justified...because neonates areso very close to being persons thatto kill them requires a very strong moral justification—as does the killing ofdolphins, whales, chimpanzees, and othe… This principle verifies that Kant would be against abortion as people would be using the foetus so as to reduce their own suffering. For other reasons too, Kant is part of the tradition deriving from both Spinoza and Rousseau. The deontology view is compatible to the abortion pro-choice decision. For example, a pimp uses prostitutes in order to gain wealth, to Kant this behaviour is intrinsically wrong as it is involves using others for personal gain. If she says “no,” then abortion cannot be moral. I want any responses to be relating to the following if you do not respond to what I wrote in the context of what I’m about to say, I will not reply. Utilitarianism would justify the abortion of the child in situations such as these as it is likely that the child would suffer, which is, needless to say, unfair. I will also present you with my personal opinion as to why I believe abortion should be in fact morally accepted by society. endobj Ethics and Abortion Two opposing arguments on the morality of abortion. Disability in the foetus . KANT’S OBJECTIONS TO UTILITARIANISM: 1. Deontological Theory Teleological (Utilitarian) Theory. Disobeying a moral law is equivalent to disobeying a physical law: you can’t, no matter how you feel about gravity it still acts, and in Kant’s view, moral law is no different. (PDF) Beyond Utilitarianism and Deontology: Ethics in Economics By definition, an abortion is the conclusion of a pregnancy through the removal of the fetus from the womb, which directly results in its death. Utilitarianism really does not have a lot to say on this issue because there are too many other issues tied into the ethical issue. The current ethical issue of abortion is a broad and complex ethical issue which can be approached from many moral and ethical directions. John Stuart mill on abortion. These theories focus on different philosophies or views that are used to either explain or make a judgment in regards to what is considered right or wrong in a given situation. deontological over teleological ethics. Abortion has long been a central issue in the arena of applied ethics, but, the distinctive analysis of feminist ethics is generally overlooked in most philosophic discussions. In Practical Ethics Singer applies this principle of ethics to such issues as equality, both between humans, and between humans and non-human animals, abortion, euthanasia and infanticide, the obligations of the wealthy to those who are living in poverty, the refugee question, our interactions with non-human beings and ecological systems, and obedience to the law. In this respect it can be very useful, for example in cases of incest and rape where the mother feels she could not bear to go through with the pregnancy, utilitarianism would justify an abortion on the grounds that the mother’s wellbeing is of utmost importance. endstream Medical Ethics and Abortion Abortion is wrong because it is the murder of a human being. Therefore, as with all of utilitarianism, it is largely down to human judgement, meaning it is subjective and so could easily be seen by many as wrong. What about abortion? The term abortion most commonly refers to the induced abortion of a human pregnancy. In this sense, the ethics of duty are minimalist. The ethical and practical aspects of abortion The ethical standing of induced abortion in human mothers has become an important question. Morality is based on a set of rules, but these rules do not come from any God. stream Basically, it is a consequentialist theory which judges the consequences of our actions rather than the actions themselves, meaning that unlike the others it does not say that abortion is always morally wrong. There are two major ethics theories that attempt to specify and justify moral rules and principles: utilitarianism and deontological ethics. Top 10 Reasons Abortion Should be Legal. By having an abortion you are disregarding the sacred value of life and so are likely to be reborn in a low, hell realm. A main principle in Buddhism is that of the Tri-Pitaka (three baskets), it is the first of these baskets – Vinaya-Pitaka – which concerns the issue of abortion as it deals with laws governing moral life for example Pratimoksha, which represents the way to freedom, and consists of Five Primary Precepts. The ‘mathematic’ principle of Kantian ethics is known as the ‘Principle of Universalisability’, basically when making a moral decision you must imagine the outcome if everyone in the world did the same thing. Examine how different ethical theories/religious viewpoints approach the issue of abortion. According to the definition of deontology in ethics, it focuses more on obligation, duty, or ideal expectations. endobj This ideology states that the correct course of action is dependent on what your duties and obligations are. %PDF-1.5 While ethics can vary among individuals or cultures, many are universal. What is deontological ethics / deontology? My ethical justification for abortion stems from a utilitarianism standpoint. endobj deontological over teleological ethics. 6|��YAι�T�mXY��>k.��٤�k�ZV W�s���2��V����Y�8)�DX��؂��?�rXےDI3/���Bj|�"�x��2���cM/�3)C�8�q�eq�"�B������L��W��TH�1��u9k By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy, The input space is limited by 250 symbols. The abortion and the utilitarian view Abortion is a sensitive topic that requires a considerable amount of understanding when addressing the ethics behind it. Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. In 250 words, briefly describe the basis, considerations, and steps of deontological ethics. Contrary to Utilitarianism, Buddhism has a very clear view on when life begins: conception. It may be difficult to implement, however, because many businesses are focused on efficiency and production to the near-exclusion of other factors. Ethical considerations can be discussed using one of several ethical frameworks that have been developed over the last 2,500 years. We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. [note 1] An abortion can occur spontaneously, in which case it is often called a miscarriage, or it can be purposely induced. For this reason, it does not forbid abortion as in some cases the abortion is likely to have a better outcome than the birth of the child. Ethics of Abortion Destiny Vazquez SOC 120 Instructor Slack Monday, April 16, 2012 Abortion, one of the most ethical issues debated today. It seems to me that a woman who wanted to have an abortion could not will that every other woman also have an abortion when she is pregnant. In this respect, Buddhism is arguably a better theory when it comes to abortion as there is no uncertainty. our expert writers, Hi, my name is Jenn The term deontology is Homework Charts Pinterest derived from the Greek deon, “duty,” and logos, “science.”. (For example, the paradox of deontology above discussed may seem more tractable if morality is a matter of personal directives of … Ethics Theories- Utilitarianism Vs. Deontological Ethics. Deontology, as a general horizon of articulating the ethical theories, believes on the contrary that in every moment of our existence, every action or deed that we accomplish can be described as moral or non-moral according to the ethical principles underlying our behavior. Abortion is one of the hottest topics debated in the world today. The Buddhists’ approach to the issue is the most complex and reasoned, although it believes that abortion is intrinsically wrong and forbids it in all cases which is an issue for many people, it is the most valid argument. One of Kant’s examples was lying – what would happen if everybody lied? Give them any task, and they would obediently execute it in the best manner possible. The current ethical issue of abortion is a broad and complex ethical issue which can be approached from many moral and ethical directions. Utilitarianism (also called consequentialism) is a moral theory developed and refined in the modern world in the writings of Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873). It is sometimes described as duty-, obligation-, or rule-based ethics. To what extent do you think they are successful in resolving the controversies? By providing abortion the law can end a non-caring relationship and free women to enter other caring relationships. t�V������e���ĕ0�ҦeK�/�94�eAUA:�/!u+8 �eշL�ۈ���'6��ʰ)"�ߎ�-S}�''�v�SŶ#`� �E*r��6EVd�h��,��g���(�� �r׷$+�3˨x5v�� M��e�%y����C�% �H-��,A��l��@�s]0���H �֟�91�([���|�^�P�7p0�f�0!_����S��u�:m�}(�y�ʽ7��(���QQ�ҡx�{�;���$��qF3e��k����³�-�����)����S���p7l}��+Gⅉ�)�7L)�o�~O7���?m�?��I��0{���Z�~ک���1�n��d��D(s In deontology, there are times when the maximum welfare of society is forbidden. A (strong) deontological animal ethic ultimately aims at the abolition of nonhuman animal use and exploitation in agriculture, entertainment, science and medical research, the fur industry, and so forth. Kant would say to the woman who wants to have an abortion: “Can you will that every other woman would have an abortion when she is pregnant?” If the woman says “yes,” then abortion is moral. To me, Utilitarianism on the whole is a very fickle theory, but particularly when applied to abortion it does not give strong enough justifications for such a crucial issue. 8 0 obj The abortion issue is largely devoted to dealing with the rights of the foetus and the mother. By clicking “Write my paper”, you agree to our, Compare And Contrast Utilitarianism With Kant MID TERM, https://graduateway.com/the-ethics-of-abortion-utilitarianism-buddhism-kant/, Get your custom Or what is considered shitty vs not shitty. %���� Source: Edson Chilundo/Flickr. I’m here to argue what should be LEGAL vs not.. Views On Abortion Abortion can be an issue that is seen as very sensitive because there’s so much controversy concerning this topic, Even though countries such as the United States have legalized the procedure, it is by no means widely accepted. Deontology describes a philosophic approach where right and wrong is determined by the adherence to certain obligations or duties and is not dependent on outcomes, as in consequentialism. 1 0 obj Utiliatrianism considers each individual circumstance separately, coming to reasonable conclusions which suit the particular circumstance. Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/the-ethics-of-abortion-utilitarianism-buddhism-kant/, This is just a sample. Ethics - Ethics - Kant: Interestingly, Kant acknowledged that he had despised the ignorant masses until he read Rousseau and came to appreciate the worth that exists in every human being. "You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy", Don't use plagiarized sources. At the heart of the argument is that ethics of care requires us to promote relationships which are your own paper. Like Kant, Buddhists believe that life is sacred and have a very positive view of human beings. His view is very unique; he believes that just as the universe is underpinned by laws of nature, human behaviour is controlled by a moral law. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email. EMAIL. Human conduct is guided by moral ethics, which entail the principles that determine whether an action is good or bad. Utilitarianism takes no account of integrity - the accidental act or one done with evil intent if promoting good ends is the good act! Kant’s second principle states that as humans we must ‘treat others as ends not means’, in other words we should not use people for our own benefit, instead we should use actions in order to benefit other people. It is also argued that "abortion can never be morally justified by the economic status of the family, disputes between partners, of affecting the career of the mother or her physical appearance. Two such directions can be the deontological Natural Moral Law and the teleological or consequentialist Utilitarian ethics. Ethics guide. Even you must have heard people say, “because at the end of the day, what is important is doing your duty”. All you need to do is fill out a short form and submit an order. Deontology is thus different from the utility maximisation of utilitarian ethics, where ethics appears in utility functions as moral preferences. This article focuses on the sometimes difficult idea that abortion should be allowed where the baby would be disabled. Unlike Kant, utilitarianism takes into account the thoughts and feelings of people involved, to produce the outcome that will bring the greatest happiness. There are many people who just have to be perfect in their work. For example the rules for abortion would be something along the lines that abortion is wrong except in cases of rape, incest, disability etc. 6 0 obj The term deontology is derived from the Greek deon, “duty,” and logos, “science.”. <> Kant’s ethics isn’t the only example of deontology. A notorious example of this type of utilitarianism is Peter Singer’s example that a mature chimpanzee has greater self-consciousness than a newborn infant and therefore has a more legitimate right to life; this statement would of course be used in favour of abortion, a very controversial view. So, if we take the above definitions of virtue as a starting point we can see that virtue ethics, as opposed to deontology or utilitarianism, is an approach that focuses on motives and moral character (virtue) and is concerned with living well in order to flourish. There are a few different ways in which an abortion can be performed, depending on how far along into the process the mother is. When contemplating abortion, most would argue that Rule Utilitarianism is a more useful guide as, unlike Act, it does not base the verdict on every single individual case, instead it forms a set of rules which aim to please the greatest number of people. Deontology is also known as “duty-based ethics”. It teaches how we can attain Nirvana by recognizing the heavenly realms instead of entering into the lower realms where the cycle of birth and rebirth continue. Abortion is a very controversial subject in today’s society, and although it is now legal in most Western countries, there are as many viewpoints and arguments opposing abortion as there are in favour of it. Abortion … ���+�.�c.�tq#��]t�)s��4|bZ����,@�gh'��sB�)v�YHXjoT�fto��F[��F(�~�±����3Y����h��n9c��]�����"I���k�7���Ħ�P �ɠ>rG�k�X�5J�:v��$��g�{y]�W��\A�x�{��uZ������_. Feelings or bad of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the Greek deon, “ science. ” white... 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